The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy

The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy PDF Author: Michael Hoskin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521576000
Category : Gardening
Languages : en
Pages : 384

Book Description
This is a textbook on the history of astronomy focusing on the topics of prime importance.

The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction

The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction PDF Author: Michael Hoskin
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191577731
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 136

Book Description
Astronomy, perhaps the first of the sciences, was already well developed by the time of Christ. Seventeen centuries later, after Newton showed that the movements of the planets could be explained in terms of gravitation, it became the paradigm for the mathematical sciences. In the nineteenth century the analysis of star-light allowed astrophysicists to determine both the chemical composition and the radial velocities of celestial bodies, while the development of photography enabled distant objects invisible to the human eye, to be studied and measured in comfort. Technical developments during and since the Second World War have greatly enlarged the scope of the science by permitting the study of radiation. This is a fascinating introduction to the history of Western astronomy, from prehistoric times to the origins of astrophysics in the mid-nineteenth century. Historical records are first found in Babylon and Egypt, and after two millennia the arithmetical astronomy of the Babylonians merged with the Greek geometrical approach to culminate in the Almagest of Ptolemy. This legacy was transmitted to the Latin West via Islam, and led to Copernicus's claim that the Earth is in motion. In justifying this Kepler converted astronomy into a branch of dynamics, leading to Newton's universal law of gravity. The book concludes with eighteenth- and nineteenth-century applications of Newton's law, and the first explorations of the universe of stars. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Encyclopedia of Lunar Science

Encyclopedia of Lunar Science PDF Author: Brian Cudnik
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 331914541X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 1287

Book Description
The Encyclopedia of Lunar Science includes the latest topical data, definitions, and explanations of the many and varied facets of lunar science. This is a very useful reference work for a broad audience, not limited to the professional lunar scientist: general astronomers, researchers, theoreticians, practitioners, graduate students, undergraduate students, and astrophysicists as well as geologists and engineers. The title includes all current areas of lunar science, with the topical entries being established tertiary literature. The work is technically suitable to most advanced undergraduate and graduate students. The articles include topics of varying technical levels so that the top scientists of the field find this work a benefit as well as the graduate students and the budding lunar scientists. A few examples of topical areas are as follows: Basaltic Volcanism, Lunar Chemistry, Time and Motion Coordinates, Cosmic Weathering through Meteoritic Impact, Environment, Geology, Geologic History, Impacts and Impact Processes, Lunar Surface Processes, Origin and Evolution Theories, Regolith, Stratigraphy, Tectonic Activity, Topography, Weathering through ionizing radiation from the solar wind, solar flares, and cosmic rays.

Handbook of Medieval Culture

Handbook of Medieval Culture PDF Author: Albrecht Classen
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110377616
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 747

Book Description
A follow-up publication to the Handbook of Medieval Studies, this new reference work turns to a different focus: medieval culture. Medieval research has grown tremendously in depth and breadth over the last decades. Particularly our understanding of medieval culture, of the basic living conditions, and the specific value system prevalent at that time has considerably expanded, to a point where we are in danger of no longer seeing the proverbial forest for the trees. The present, innovative handbook offers compact articles on essential topics, ideals, specific knowledge, and concepts defining the medieval world as comprehensively as possible. The topics covered in this new handbook pertain to issues such as love and marriage, belief in God, hell, and the devil, education, lordship and servitude, Christianity versus Judaism and Islam, health, medicine, the rural world, the rise of the urban class, travel, roads and bridges, entertainment, games, and sport activities, numbers, measuring, the education system, the papacy, saints, the senses, death, and money.

Astronomy in Culture -- Cultures of Astronomy. Astronomie in der Kultur -- Kulturen der Astronomie.

Astronomy in Culture -- Cultures of Astronomy. Astronomie in der Kultur -- Kulturen der Astronomie. PDF Author: Gudrun Wolfschmidt
Publisher: tredition
ISBN: 3347712943
Category : History
Languages : de
Pages : 732

Book Description
This book "Astronomy in Culture - Cultures of Astronomy" provides a cultural history of astronomy. After a keynote on the efforts to protect the dark sky as an intangible global heritage admired of all cultures under the World Heritage Convention, tangible places of astronomical heritage are described. Archaeoastronomical sites from different continents and astronomical observatories from the late Middle Ages to the 21st century are presented as cultural heritage (material culture) in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 outlines some intangible astronomical heritage of Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Astronomical observations in all cultures are the basis for time keeping and calendars all over the world. Constellations are represented as figures resembling animals or seasonal activities, and seasonal climate determines rituals and cultural festivals. Chapter 4 is devoted to some astronomical heritage presented in modern planetariums and museums representing the modern culture. A highlight is the network study of patterns stored in the planetarium software "Stellarium". Chapter 5 contains some cross-cultural comparisons involving the whole sky. Scholars from different academic backgrounds (archaeology, history of science, philology, art history, planetarium educators, computer/data science) present their studies of this traditional knowledge and how it has been transmitted and transformed over the millennia in the seven chapters of this impressive book. Dieses Buch "Astronomie in der Kultur - Kulturen der Astronomie" bietet eine Kulturgeschichte der Astronomie. Es beginnt mit den Bemühungen, den dunklen Himmel, der von allen Kulturen bewundert wird, im Rahmen der Welterbekonvention als immaterielles Erbe zu schützen. Astronomische Observatorien und archäoastronomische Stätten werden in Kapitel 2 als kulturelles Erbe (materielle Kultur) vorgestellt. Kapitel 3 bietet das immaterielle Erbe von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter. Astronomische Beobachtungen in allen Kulturen sind die Grundlage für Zeitrechnungen und Kalender auf der ganzen Welt. Sternbilder werden als Figuren dargestellt, die Tieren oder Tätigkeiten der Jahreszeiten ähneln, und das jahreszeitliche Klima bestimmt die Rituale und kulturellen Feste. Kapitel 4 ist einem Teil des astronomischen Erbes gewidmet, das in modernen Planetarien und Museen der modernen Kultur präsentiert wird. Ein Höhepunkt ist die Netzwerkstudie der Muster, die in der Planetariumssoftware "Stellarium" gespeichert sind. Kapitel 5 enthält einige kulturübergreifende Vergleiche, die den gesamten Himmel betreffen. Wissenschaftler mit unterschiedlichen akademischen Hintergründen (Archäologie, Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Philologie, Kunstgeschichte, Planetariumspädagogen, Informatik/Datenwissenschaft) stellen in den sieben Kapiteln dieses beeindruckenden Buches ihre Studien über dieses traditionelle Wissen und seine Übertragung und Veränderung im Laufe der Jahrtausende vor.

As The World Turns: The History Of Proving The Earth Rotates

As The World Turns: The History Of Proving The Earth Rotates PDF Author: Peter Kosso
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1786348195
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 286

Book Description
'This book offers an excellent explanation of the scientific method and its use, through case studies from astronomy, physics, and philosophy. Summing Up: Recommended. Lower- and upper-division undergraduates. General readers.'CHOICE'In summary this is a lovely, elegant book which reminds us that physics is not an exercise in mathematics but a self-consistent system of thought based on measurement and informed observation which depends on interpretation by the human mind in the context of the science of the day. It is a valuable reminder of the underlying human quality in physics that gets lost in the 'shut up and calculate' methodology of the more esoteric branches of the science.'The ObservatoryWe know the Earth rotates, but how do we know? When and how did it become reasonable to believe that the Earth rotates?This book offers a historical account, from ancient Greek science to the theory of relativity and ultimately to videos taken from outer space, of how this widely known truth came to be. Using an accessible and entertaining narrative suitable for anyone interested in astronomy, physics, or the history of either, Kosso clarifies the use of evidence to prove that the Earth rotates, and deals with the tension between the claims that the Earth is absolutely in motion, yet all motion is relative. The book also explores the general nature of scientific evidence and method, and confronts challenges to science from outside the discipline.

The Reopening of the Western Mind

The Reopening of the Western Mind PDF Author: Charles Freeman
Publisher: Knopf
ISBN: 0525659374
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 817

Book Description
A monumental and exhilarating history of European thought from the end of Antiquity to the beginning of the Enlightenment—500 to 1700 AD—tracing the arc of intellectual history as it evolved, setting the stage for the modern era. With more than 140 illustrations; 90 in full-color. Charles Freeman, lauded historical scholar and author of The Closing of the Western Mind (“A triumph”—The Times [London]), explores the rebirth of Western thought in the centuries that followed the demise of the classical era. As the dominance of Christian teachings gradually subsided over time, a new open-mindedness made way for the ideas of morality and theology, and fueled and formed the backbone of the Western mind of the late Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and beyond. In this wide-ranging history, Freeman follows the immense intellectual development that culminated in the Enlightenment, from political ideology to philosophy and theology, as well as the fine arts and literature. He writes, in vivid detail, of how Europeans progressed from the Christian-minded thinking of Saint Augustine to the more open-minded later scholars, such as Michel de Montaigne, leading to a broader, more “humanist” way of thinking. He explores how the discovery of America fundamentally altered European conceptions of humanity, religion, and science; how the rise of Protestantism and the Reformation profoundly influenced the tenor of politics and legal systems, with enormous repercussions; and how the radical Christianity of philosophers such as Spinoza affected a rethinking of the concept of religious tolerance that has influenced the modern era ever since.

Conceptions of Cosmos

Conceptions of Cosmos PDF Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199209162
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 285

Book Description
This book is a historical account of how natural philosophers and scientists have endeavoured to understand the universe at large, first in a mythical and later in a scientific context. Starting with the creation stories of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the book covers all the major events in theoretical and observational cosmology, from Aristotle's cosmos over the Copernican revolution to the discovery of the accelerating universe in the late 1990s. It presents cosmology as asubject including scientific as well as non-scientific dimensions, and tells the story of how it developed into a true science of the heavens. Contrary to most other books in the history of cosmology, it offers an integrated account of the development with emphasis on the modern Einsteinian andpost-Einsteinian period. Starting in the pre-literary era, it carries the story onwards to the early years of the 21st century.

Intellectual and Imaginative Cartographies in Early Modern England

Intellectual and Imaginative Cartographies in Early Modern England PDF Author: Patrick J. Murray
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1000635791
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 269

Book Description
Taking as its focus an age of transformational development in cartographic history, namely the two centuries between Columbus’s arrival in the New World and the emergence of the Scientific Revolution, this study examines how maps were employed as physical and symbolic objects by thinkers, writers and artists. It surveys how early modern people used the map as an object, whether for enjoyment or political campaigning, colonial invasion or teaching in the classroom. Exploring a wide range of literature, from educational manifestoes to the plays of Marlowe and Shakespeare, it suggests that the early modern map was as diverse and various as the rich culture from which it emerged, and was imbued with a whole range of political, social, literary and personal impulses. Intellectual and Imaginative Cartographies in Early Modern England, 1550-1700 will appeal to all those interested in the History of Cartography

Women in Early British and Irish Astronomy

Women in Early British and Irish Astronomy PDF Author: Mary Brück
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048124735
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 281

Book Description
Careers in astronomy for women (as in other sciences) were a rarity in Britain and Ireland until well into the twentieth century. The book investigates the place of women in astronomy before that era, recounted in the form of biographies of about 25 women born between 1650 and 1900 who in varying capacities contributed to its progress during the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are some famous names among them whose biographies have been written before now, there are others who have received less than their due recognition while many more occupied inconspicuous and sometimes thankless places as assistants to male family members. All deserve to be remembered as interesting individuals in an earlier opportunity-poor age. Placed in roughly chronological order, their lives constitute a sample thread in the story of female entry into the male world of science. The book is aimed at astronomers, amateur astronomers, historians of science, and promoters of women in science, but being written in non-technical language it is intended to be of interest also to educated readers generally.
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